Indian Language and Literature
Language and literature are two different topics of discussion, but in Indian context, both of them are inseparable. Indian literature is wide, and can’t be categorized because it is found in various languages including Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Bengali, Bihari, Gujrati, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, Telugu, and so on.
Similarly, the list of Indian languages is very long, and it is the literature that has kept these languages alive. Language and literature therefore are supplementary of each other. So, we will also learn about Indian Language and literature in reference with each other.
Literature in India
The tradition of writing dates back to 3000 years ago since historians have discovered scripts from Harappan civilization.
By Indian literature, we mean the writings that were produced in entire Indian Subcontinent before the Republic of India and within the Indian demography after separation from Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Ancient Language and Literature
The ancient literature exists in the form of Vedas, Puranas, and epics were written in Sanskrit Veda, means Knowledge, and it teaches that the entire world is a large family named Vasudeva Kutumbakam.
There are four veda, and they preach unity. The Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana were also written in Sanskrit.
Evolution of Hindi Language
Hindi arose from 7th to 14th century A.D. or Adi Kala. Hindi literature was all about heroic poetry and celebrated the valor of Rajput rulers.
Kabir and Tulsidas are some prominent poets of this time and they inspired people about the ways one should behave in society and treat others.
Surdas is also a celebrated poet of Hindi language who wrote about different forms and phases of lord Krishna and his naughtiness. He, not only inspired Meerabai and Raskhan, but also presented the image of gods for us.
Spread of Urdu language in India
Urdu was not actually an Indian language, but was born out of the conversation of Hindu soldiers and Turkis traders. The time when Turks and Mangols started visiting in India, Urdu emerged as a combination or mix of these two languages.
It became a formal language when people started using it for poems and shayari. Khausrau, Ghalib, Zauq, and Iqbal are some of the Urdu authors of India.
Apart of these nationally acclaimed languages, a major part of Indian literature is found in regional languages such as Bangali, Rajasthani, Marathi, Nepali, Assamese, Maithili, Gujrati, Punjabi etc.